Risk Factors of Down syndrome
• Congenital heart disease: It found in as much as 50% of cases with endocardial cushion defect being the most prevalent (40%) and ventricular septal defect coming in at a close second (30%).
• Malignancies: Various forms of leukemia are common whereas other forms of cancer are not.
• Thyroid disorders: Hypothyroidism is most common caused by absence of thyroid at birth or due to attack on the thyroid by the immune system.
• Infertility: Infertility is common in both sexes. The female rate of conception is lower and they often have difficulties with labor, with frequent miscarriages and premature births. Only three men having Down syndrome have been recorded as having fathered children.
• Ophthalmology and Otolaryngology